Sunday, August 18, 2019

Luke 12:49-53; The Tenth Sunday after Pentecost; August 18, 2013;

Luke 12:49-53; The Tenth Sunday after Pentecost; August 18, 2019;
Life in Christ Lutheran Church, Grand Marais, MN;
“I came to cast fire on the earth, and would that it were already kindled! I have a baptism to be baptized with, and how great is my distress until it is accomplished! Do you think that I have come to give peace on earth? No, I tell you, but rather division. For from now on in one house there will be five divided, three against two and two against three. They will be divided, father against son and son against father, mother against daughter and daughter against mother, mother-in-law against her daughter-in-law and daughter-in-law against mother-in-law.” (Luke 12:49-53, ESV)
Grace and peace to you from our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ. Amen.
Hold up your hand in front of you.  Let your fingers illustrate your family, or the people you gather with regularly at work or morning coffee, or your household, or your neighborhood.  That’s the kind of group that Jesus is talking about here.  Five people, a typical Galilean family.  Father, Mother, Sister, Brother, and Brother’s wife all are living under one roof.  It’s a close gathering of people who spend time together, people who love one another or at least understand each other.  Jesus says that because of him, because of the “fire” he has come to bring, groups just like that will be divided.  Groups like that, which you are a part of, are divided because of Jesus.  You all know the two topics that you should avoid if you want to have a pleasant conversation.  What are they?  Yep, religion and politics.  Well, you can blame that in part on Jesus.  That's because of the fire.  The old saying goes, put three Germans in a room and you’ll have four different opinions.  It’s true for politics (but we won’t discuss politics today), and it true also for religion.
Really, talk about religion is talk about God.  What is it that people don’t want to hear about when there is God talk?  What is it about God that makes for uncomfortable conversation?  Well, everyone wants to hear about a god who loves and forgives; a god who takes people for what they are.  But no one wants to be held accountable to a god.  No one wants to hear about a god that punishes because of sin.  But, whenever we talk about the real God, the God that the Bible tells us about, the God that Jesus speaks about, we always come to the reality that we are sinful people.  Whenever we talk about a perfectly holy God, people get uncomfortable.  That’s the fire.  God himself; who He is in comparison to us and what He expects of people.  We call it the Law.
For the Lord your God is a consuming fire, a jealous God. (Deuteronomy 4:24, ESV)
And God spoke all these words, saying, “I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery. “You shall have no other gods before me. “You shall not make for yourself a carved image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. You shall not bow down to them or serve them, for I the Lord your God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children to the third and the fourth generation of those who hate me, but showing steadfast love to thousands of those who love me and keep my commandments.(Exodus 20:1-6, ESV)
No one wants to be accountable for their actions against a God who promises to punish sin.  In fact, people love a god that they can work their way out of sin.  They love a god who just sweeps sin under the carpet and forgets that it exists.  They love a god who is the picture of a forgetful old grandfather who overlooks what he doesn’t like.  But, you see, that’s just not the God that Jesus tells us about.  And although Jesus didn’t come to condemn the world, but in order that the world might be saved through him (John 3:17, ESV) he did come to bring God’s fire, and that fire brings with it, division.  That’s because no one can understand the true nature of the forgiveness Jesus brings without experiencing the fire of the law of God.  That fire of God’s Law tells us that because of sin we deserve nothing but punishment.
We don't do anyone any favors by bringing the law "lite". There is no lite version of the law that is easier to swallow like some lite beer.  Many of you know exactly the division that the law brings. We do not want to tell our family members that belonging to a church that teaches and believes things that are not taught in the Bible is wrong. It's not necessarily better to go to any church the no church. And then it comes up when they want to commune at this altar. We have the responsibility of turning them away. Because God tells us that to commune at this altar is to say we believe, teach, and confess the same things. Membership in a church is saying that you believe what that church teaches. It is especially pronounced these days when so many churches are drinking the Kool-Aid of the current culture.
Others of you know this division when you have family members who are living outside of what God says is right. We don't want to be the one to tell them that their activity pushes them away from God and can lead them to hell. You don't want to tell them because were afraid of the division.
Others know the division because God's word cuts you right to the heart. God says you shall not commit adultery. But he doesn't just mean sleeping around. He means looking around and thinking about sleeping around. His law is firm. It is sinful and deserving of hell. It's never been easier to deserve God's wrath and punishment then so-called soft porn on the Internet. (Matthew 5:27ff)
And you feel the division when you speak about your neighbor and less than favorable terms. It is a breaking of the fifth commandment, you shall not kill. But of course, you don't have to actually kill. Jesus says the words do well enough. When you talk about your neighbor in any way that reduces his reputation to anyone else you have killed him. Jesus says clearly that this kind of activity deserves nothing but hell. (Matt 5)
This is the bare edge of God's law. It's the wrath of God come down on sinful human beings. There is no way for you or me or your family members to work out our own escape. The law means punishment, death, and eternal separation from God. This is the division that Jesus comes to bring. It is the full force wrath of God against a sinful race. And so, the reaction that you see in people is perfectly understandable.
“If that’s what God does we don’t what to have anything to do with him.”
“If that’s the kind of god you’re talking about we don’t want to talk about him at all…”
So, sin and God's threat of punishment for that sin divides families. Jesus is responsible for that division.
Do you think that I have come to give peace on earth? No, I tell you, but rather division.
There's something else to the fire that Jesus brings. Something unique about the one who brings the fire to earth. Jesus is not the picture of God tromping through the vineyard trampling the grapes with lightning coming out of his hands striking dead all those who sin against his law. And he talks about it when he says:
I have a baptism to be baptized with, and how great is my distress until it is accomplished!
Jesus isn't just speaking in hyperbole. He's talking about a real baptism. He's talking about a real fire and anger and God's wrath. Right away in the Gospel of St. Luke after the wonderful account of Jesus birth in the proclamation that Jesus brings peace, we have John the Baptizer telling everyone that God's wrath is coming. And then Jesus is baptized by John in the Jordan River.
Jesus doesn't come to dispense God's wrath. That is, he doesn't come to condemn sinful human beings. But instead he comes to bear God's wrath. The fire that he comes to bring is the fire that he himself will hang in. And it begins with him going into the water of the Jordan River and being baptized by John. In Jesus Christ, God becomes the human sin bearer. In Jesus Christ, God becomes for all people the bearer of God's wrath over sin. When Jesus comes out of the water wet from his own baptism, he heads straight for the cross. The years that he walks the earth he walks it as a sinless human being yet bearing the sins of the whole world. And he walks in distress until the feat is accomplished. Jesus baptism is a baptism of fire and blood. On the cross, suspended between earth and God, Jesus bears the full punishment of God's anger over our sin. This is the baptism that Jesus is distressed about. This is the baptism that he has come to bring. It is the division he comes to bear. He is divided from and forsaken by God, suffering eternal hell for you and your family.  Nothing shows God's displeasure over sin more clearly than the bleeding and dying of Jesus Christ, his only son, on the cross in your place.
There is no way to bring this Word to people without offense. The law must offend. God is perfect and holy and just. He cannot set aside what he has declared to be good and right and true. The law has its purpose. It must be proclaimed in its full force. We must see Jesus bleeding and dying and suffering on the cross as being our just punishment. We must know that that is what we deserve for our sin. Without it we would never crawl to the cross begging for forgiveness from the one who offers it to us freely. Without the law in its full force the sweetness of the gospel cannot be received in its full force.
And the full force of the gospel is this. The baptism that Jesus bears he bears in our place. The punishment he receives he receives in our place. The wrath of God that is poured out on him is poured out on him in our place. It is a baptism of fire. It is a baptism of blood. It is a baptism of water…
There's the font. It stands out here in front of us. It's not just here because it's a piece of furniture we cherish. It's here to show us the baptism that Jesus brings. The water in the bowl and the words spoken over that water when it is poured on our heads is our connection to Jesus on the cross. He is baptized in the river. We are baptized in the bowl. The water is the same. Our sin goes in the water. Jesus is in the water and he comes up and carries it to the cross. There is no simpler picture of grace. God makes promises and makes your head wet. The promises are given in the sin is taken. Jesus bears that baptism and the water with all your sin. He walks up out of the water and hangs on the cross and suffers God's just punishment. And you are declared by the word and the water to be righteous in God's sight.
There is nothing other to be done than to live according to the promises that you have been given: To reject sin; To speak against it especially within your own family; to take the division Jesus brings and use it to proclaim God's anger over sin.  Then point people to the place where God pours out that anger and punishment and Jesus. It's the cross. It's the cross with Jesus on it. It is forgiveness won there and given to you and your family freely by God's grace. Amen.
The peace of God that passes all understanding keep your hearts and minds in Christ Jesus. Amen.

Sunday, August 11, 2019

Life in Christ Lutheran Church, Grand Marais, MN;
“Stay dressed for action and keep your lamps burning, and be like men who are waiting for their master to come home from the wedding feast, so that they may open the door to him at once when he comes and knocks. Blessed are those servants whom the master finds awake when he comes. Truly, I say to you, he will dress himself for service and have them recline at table, and he will come and serve them. If he comes in the second watch, or in the third, and finds them awake, blessed are those servants! But know this, that if the master of the house had known at what hour the thief was coming, he would not have left his house to be broken into. You also must be ready, for the Son of Man is coming at an hour you do not expect.”” (Luke 12:35–40, ESV)
Grace and peace to you from our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ.
Well… what are you looking forward to? What happened to you last year? Was it good for you? I’ll have to admit there’s a good bunch of last few years that I might just as well skip. Some times of our lives are like that. Good and bad. It is difficult to live in the world the way it is, but don’t think you are alone. This has how it has always been, since Adam and Eve decided it should be this way. And that’s exactly what they did.
“We should know better than God what’s good for us,” Eve thought as she plunged her teeth into the fruit God told them to stay away from.
“We should know better than God how our relationship should be,” thought Adam as he watched his wife.
There is no way around it. He should have listened to God and protected both of them from death. He wanted to have what God didn’t give them to have. And so, we have it. Sin and death and all the trouble that leads up to it; selfishness, greed, pride, deceit, coveting, false religion, and plague, war, bad government, failing economies and divorce, child abuse, abortion, murder, and cancer, heart disease and… the list goes on. We’ve seen them all, and we will see them all again. They lead to the big one, the mother of all trouble… anxiety. What is going to happen to me? How will I protect my family? What happens if I get cancer? Is my job secure? There’s a quote that a pastor I know uses:
"Anxiety is the liturgy with which we serve our idols." Unknown
That’s exactly what anxiety is, worshipping and serving our idols. Our work, our families, our money, our security, and then there is the biggest one, our big god is ourselves. Me. I wonder what’s going to happen to me. I worry, how I will feel if that bad thing I’m worried about actually happens. Anxiety is not placing our trust in the hands of God where it belongs.
And then we have our text for this today. “Stay dressed for action…” The original expression is “gird up your loins.” ( You see, in the days when Jesus said these words, men wore long tunics that inhibited free movement. You ladies know about these things. Long narrow skirts and dresses. You can’t run. You can’t squat down to pay attention to something on the ground. To gird up your loins was a very specific thing for men in those days. You had to hike up your tunic above your knees, gather all the excess in front, push it between your knees like a diaper, separate it in back and tie the two ends together at the front. It was the only way to free up your legs for movement, to be prepared for battle or serious work. “Gird up your loins…” Jesus says. Be prepared.
I have a good friend that uses the term “Cowboy up!” or “Man up.” He means you’ve got this stuff to deal with, just do it! Jesus isn’t exactly saying that to us. But he is saying, be prepared for what’s coming. Specifically, be prepared because He is coming, and you don’t know when. It could be before we meet again for another Sunday. But whenever it happens, all of this trouble, all that you are anxious about, will come to an end. But Jesus isn’t saying, look into yourself and find your own strength to deal. It’s in the section right before the words “Gird up your loins”, back in verse 22.
And [Jesus] said to his disciples, “Therefore I tell you, do not be anxious about your life, what you will eat, nor about your body, what you will put on. For life is more than food, and the body more than clothing. Consider the ravens: they neither sow nor reap, they have neither storehouse nor barn, and yet God feeds them. Of how much more value are you than the birds! And which of you by being anxious can add a single hour to his span of life? If then you are not able to do as small a thing as that, why are you anxious about the rest? Consider the lilies, how they grow: they neither toil nor spin, yet I tell you, even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. But if God so clothes the grass, which is alive in the field today, and tomorrow is thrown into the oven, how much more will he clothe you, O you of little faith! And do not seek what you are to eat and what you are to drink, nor be worried. For all the nations of the world seek after these things, and your Father knows that you need them. Instead, seek his kingdom, and these things will be added to you.” (Luke 12:22–31, ESV)
Seek the Kingdom of God, Jesus says. Don’t be anxious about anything. You can’t change the length of your life. You have no control over so many of these things you worry about. Instead focus on God’s Kingdom. He’ll take care of the rest. And then he says, “Gird up your loins.” Be prepared for action. Be prepared for battle. Do what needs to be done in light of the fact that God is taking care of you, and not just you but the whole world. Jesus’ Kingdom is coming. His death on the cross is the fix, and his resurrection is the proof. Your sin is forgiven. Your neighbor’s sin is forgiven. That’s a whole new light to live in. Jesus takes care of your great need, forgiveness. He, in a sense, girded up his loins, and did the necessary work. His life, death and resurrection are that work for you. You have no worries about what is coming in the end. You’ve read the last page of the book; you know how it comes out. Jesus goes to prepare a place for you. He returns in glory to take you there. You have no real worries about tomorrow. God provides everything you need. You know it because he has taken care of your greatest need. And in the end, you will see it.
Now, the world itself is looking forward to its own redemption. From Romans 8:
For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of him who subjected it, in hope that the creation itself will be set free from its bondage to corruption and obtain the freedom of the glory of the children of God. For we know that the whole creation has been groaning together in the pains of childbirth until now. And not only the creation, but we ourselves, who have the firstfruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we wait eagerly for adoption as sons, the redemption of our bodies.” (Romans 8:20–23, ESV)
It is going to happen, the fix is in, be ready, the Kingdom of God is at hand. Jesus is coming, soon…
So, what do we do? What actions do we take? How do we gird up our loins? What to do whilst we wait for our master to return? Scripture is full of action:
If your enemy is hungry, give him bread to eat, and if he is thirsty, give him water to drink,” (Proverbs 25:21, ESV)
If possible, so far as it depends on you, live peaceably with all.” (Romans 12:18, ESV)
…in your hearts honor Christ the Lord as holy, always being prepared to make a defense to anyone who asks you for a reason for the hope that is in you; yet do it with gentleness and respect,” (1 Peter 3:15, ESV)
Let brotherly love continue. Do not neglect to show hospitality to strangers, for thereby some have entertained angels unawares. Remember those who are in prison, as though in prison with them, and those who are mistreated, since you also are in the body. Let marriage be held in honor among all, and let the marriage bed be undefiled, for God will judge the sexually immoral and adulterous. Keep your life free from love of money, and be content with what you have, for he has said, “I will never leave you nor forsake you.”” (Hebrews 13:1–5, ESV) 
Remind the people to be subject to rulers and authorities, to be obedient, to be ready to do whatever is good. Titus 3:1
I urge, then, first of all, that requests, prayers, intercession and thanksgiving be made for everyone—for kings and all those in authority, that we may live peaceful and quiet lives in all godliness and holiness. This is good, and pleases God our Savior. 1 Tim. 2:1–3
Wives, submit to your husbands, as is fitting in the Lord. Husbands, love your wives, and do not be harsh with them. Children, obey your parents in everything, for this pleases the Lord. Fathers, do not provoke your children, lest they become discouraged. Bondservants, obey in everything those who are your earthly masters, not by way of eye-service, as people-pleasers, but with sincerity of heart, fearing the Lord. Whatever you do, work heartily, as for the Lord and not for men, knowing that from the Lord you will receive the inheritance as your reward. You are serving the Lord Christ.” (Colossians 3:18–24, ESV)
The commandments … are summed up in this one rule: “Love your neighbor as yourself.” Rom. 13:9
Gird up your loins. Be ready. Do the work you have been given to do while you wait. Serve in your many vocations. Do what you have been given to do in the place you have been given to do it, for the people God has given you to serve. Be prepared because he is coming soon. Amen.
The peace of God that passes all understanding, keep your hearts and minds in Christ Jesus. Amen.

Sunday, August 04, 2019

Ecclesiastes 1:2, 12-14; 2:18-26; August 4, 2019; The 8th Sunday after Pentecost

Ecclesiastes 1:2, 12-14; 2:18-26; August 4, 2019; The 8th Sunday after Pentecost
Life in Christ Lutheran Church, Grand Marais, MN
Vanity of vanities, says the Preacher, vanity of vanities! All is vanity.” (Ecclesiastes 1:2, ESV)
I the Preacher have been king over Israel in Jerusalem. And I applied my heart to seek and to search out by wisdom all that is done under heaven. It is an unhappy business that God has given to the children of man to be busy with. I have seen everything that is done under the sun, and behold, all is vanity and a striving after wind.” (Ecclesiastes 1:12–14, ESV)
I hated all my toil in which I toil under the sun, seeing that I must leave it to the man who will come after me, and who knows whether he will be wise or a fool? Yet he will be master of all for which I toiled and used my wisdom under the sun. This also is vanity. So I turned about and gave my heart up to despair over all the toil of my labors under the sun, because sometimes a person who has toiled with wisdom and knowledge and skill must leave everything to be enjoyed by someone who did not toil for it. This also is vanity and a great evil. What has a man from all the toil and striving of heart with which he toils beneath the sun? For all his days are full of sorrow, and his work is a vexation. Even in the night his heart does not rest. This also is vanity. There is nothing better for a person than that he should eat and drink and find enjoyment in his toil. This also, I saw, is from the hand of God, for apart from him who can eat or who can have enjoyment? For to the one who pleases him God has given wisdom and knowledge and joy, but to the sinner he has given the business of gathering and collecting, only to give to one who pleases God. This also is vanity and a striving after wind.” (Ecclesiastes 2:18–26, ESV)
Grace and peace to you from our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ.
Meaningless! Meaningless!  Like vapor, wind.  Like the little breeze that blows around in the desert.  Everything is meaningless, says the writer of Ecclesiastes.  In fact, the theme of the book could easily be summed up with that one word, “meaningless.”  What’s going on here?  What in the world is a book like this doing in the bible anyway?  Isn’t the world full of enough pessimism?  I don’t really think we need anymore here in the bible, do you?  Over the years there has been a great deal of discussion on that very point.  Even the ancient Rabbis, discussed whether this book should truly be a part of the canon.  It just doesn’t seem to fit the general character of so much of the bible, let alone the Old Testament itself.
And it’s an interesting selection for this text to be read here at this time of year too!  I mean I don’t think with school starting soon, that this is a great time for our children to hear that ‘life is meaningless.’  We have enough trouble motivating them for school in the first place.  I don’t think they need to hear right now that work is meaningless, vapor, and dust in the wind.  I don’t really think it will be helpful to tell them that no matter how hard they work in life, it all amounts to nothing, like a puff of air, or the breath of a fly.  Joshua would you please take out the trash, oh by the way, it’s meaningless.  Miciah please do your homework even though it’s meaningless.  I don’t think that’s going to rate high on the motivational chart, do you?
OK, well maybe it isn’t the best thing to tell our children at night before they go to bed, but the truth of the matter is that the text is right.  When life is focused on all that we can gain by our hard work, it is meaningless.  The real problem is this…  we don’t act like we believe it.  As a matter of fact a person might be hard pressed to see how we … who are suppose to be the ones who “please God,” and to whom he “gives wisdom, knowledge and happiness,” are any different from those who the text calls “sinners.”
We are, just like everyone around us, can be very possession centered.  Our lives at times seem to revolve around what we can get for ourselves.  We are just as guilty of “keeping ahead of the Jones” as anyone.  The only difference between men and boys is the price of their toys.  Cell phones, computers, table saws, and big screen TVs…  etc. He who dies with the most toys, wins! The popular bumper sticker says.  We want all these things…  and many more.  And we know that hard work pays for them. 
The author of our text today is also in our shoes.  “… all the things I toiled for, under the sun,” he calls them.  He had worked hard to gain what he had, and yet he calls it all “meaningless.”  In fact, he says he hated all the things he had worked for.  After all the work, after all the toil to gain them, he only was left to worry about them.  The new car meant higher insurance, a new garage to protect it, and worry about what would happen to it when he left on vacation.  Just like the commercial, “I can finally relax!” says the man, who is placing his trust in a home alarm system. 
What has a man from all the toil and striving of heart with which he toils beneath the sun?” (Ecclesiastes 2:22, ESV)
All that he has accomplished with his hard work is worry and more hard work. 
But ultimately, when all is said and done, the one thing that places all our hard work in meaningless category is… death.  All that we work for, all that we gain in our lives, is lost at the very moment our heart stops beating.  Ecclesiastes talks about how all the things we gain by our hard work are given to others who haven’t worked for them.  Another bumper sticker put it this way, “He who dies with the most toys… still dies.”  All our toil, all our work is rendered meaningless, and evaporates just like the escaping air of our final breath. 
Don’t get this message wrong…  I’m not advocating laziness.  I’m not saying that we shouldn’t work, I’m not saying that we shouldn’t work hard.  What I am saying is that we sometimes work for the wrong reasons.  We often work to get things, and when we get them, we work to maintain them, and then to replace them…  Ecclesiastes understands the problem very well.  And it doesn’t advocate not working either.  Look back at the line
There is nothing better for a person than that he should eat and drink and find enjoyment in his toil. This also, I saw, is from the hand of God,” (Ecclesiastes 2:24, ESV)
It doesn’t say, work is meaningless so don’t do it.  Possessions are meaningless so don’t get them.  What it does say is to eat and drink and find enjoyment in our work.  It would be good to remember that work is a blessing.  Work was not the result of sin, Genesis 2:15 says
The LORD God took the man and put him in the garden of Eden to work it and keep it.” (Genesis 2:15, ESV)
Adam was given work to do as a blessing.  His work became hard work, and toil after he sinned.  What the text does say is that no one can find satisfaction in their work without God.
There is a lot packed in the words “without God,” here.  The text asks, “Without God, who can eat or find enjoyment?” and the answer is an emphatic, “No one!”  In fact, without God, all there is in life is the things that one works for.  All that there is the nest egg that can be built, or the security found in a theft deterrent system.  Without God, all there is, is a life that a person can build for himself.  A life that is over in an instant, a life that is fleeting and unsure.  Without God, all that a person accomplishes is for the benefit of someone else…  death comes and all of it is left to someone who didn’t earn it.  To be “Without God” is to be hopeless, breath, vapor… meaningless. 
But God does not want our lives to be meaningless.  He doesn’t want our lives to be lived without him, without hope.   And so, he sent Jesus Christ who changes meaningless into meaningful.  Since death is what takes meaning from life, Jesus Christ came to destroy death.   He took away death’s power over us by dying and rising again.  He showed us that his power over death is greater than our fear of it.  His power over death is so great that what was once an end, eternal separation from God, became instead a beginning.  To die with Jesus Christ is to be with him forever.  So, the question of death is no longer, “What do we lose?” but, “What do we gain?”
But it isn’t only by our death that we gain Jesus Christ.  He promises to be with us always.  “… I am with you always to the very end of the age.”  Through faith in him we are truly with him and his presence changes everything.  The Epistle lesson today says this. 
If then you have been raised with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God. Set your minds on things that are above, not on things that are on earth. For you have died, and your life is hidden with Christ in God. When Christ who is your life appears, then you also will appear with him in glory.” (Colossians 3:1–4, ESV)
To set your mind on earthly things it the meaninglessness of Ecclesiastes.  But Christ comes to you and me, and through him we can set our minds on the things above. 
To set our mind on things above is to remember what Jesus Christ did for us.  That by his death he set us free from death.  Its treat no longer hangs over our heads, threatening to take all that we have gained away.  When we set our minds on things above, we are focused on Jesus Christ, faithfully trusting that he will give us whatever we need.  When those gifts come, we realize that they are not the purpose in life but only good gifts that God wishes us to have and enjoy. 
God created this world, this physical world, for us.  He intends for us to have good gifts from it.  It isn’t wrong to work hard to provide for your family or even to enjoy the blessings that God provides you through your hard work.  All of that is what God intended it to be… but, it all becomes meaningless when the things we can gain from hard work become the purpose of our lives. 
You know what.  We aren’t always going to set our minds on the things above.  There will be days when our lives will be filled with meaningless struggle, focused on our own material gain.  But God has done something about that too!  Remember Paul’s words. 
If then you have been raised with Christ, seek the things that are above… For you have died, and your life is hidden with Christ in God. (Colossians 3:1–2, ESV) 
Paul is talking about baptism.  To die and be raised with Christ is to be baptized into his death and life.  To be baptized into Christ’s death and life is to change meaningless into meaningful.  To be changed from a life that is bound only for death, to a life that has been rescued from death by Jesus Christ himself.  With death defeated all those meaningless things, and even the hard work isn’t meaningless any longer.  Amen.
The peace of God that passes all understanding keep your hearts and minds in Christ Jesus.  Amen.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Psalm 139:1-12; The Seventh Sunday after Pentecost; July 28, 2019

Psalm 139:1-12; The Seventh Sunday after Pentecost; July 28, 2019
Life in Christ Lutheran Church, Grand Marais, MN
O Lord, you have searched me and known me! You know when I sit down and when I rise up; you discern my thoughts from afar. You search out my path and my lying down and are acquainted with all my ways. Even before a word is on my tongue, behold, O Lord, you know it altogether. You hem me in, behind and before, and lay your hand upon me. Such knowledge is too wonderful for me; it is high; I cannot attain it. Where shall I go from your Spirit? Or where shall I flee from your presence? If I ascend to heaven, you are there! If I make my bed in Sheol, you are there! If I take the wings of the morning and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea, even there your hand shall lead me, and your right hand shall hold me. If I say, “Surely the darkness shall cover me, and the light about me be night,” even the darkness is not dark to you; the night is bright as the day, for darkness is as light with you. (Psalm 139:1-12, ESV)
Grace and peace to you from our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ.
I’m sure many of you have heard this story: A farmer went into his banker and said to him that he had good news and bad news. “First the bad. I can’t make the mortgage payment, and I can’t pay back my operating loan this year. We couldn’t get the crop planted because of the weather, so I won’t be making any payments on my equipment either. In fact, I’m going to pack it all in and just turn the farm over to you.” After a prolonged silence the banker asked, “What’s the good news?” The farmer smiled, “I’m still going to bank with you.”
Good News and Bad News. We get used to hearing things that are good news and bad news. Of course, in real life we don’t want to hear the bad news, only the good. And here we are pew sitting only 2 weeks after Easter while the Paraments are still white. Isn’t the Easter season a season when we expected to hear about “Good News?”
Well, that’s not just Good News that’s Best of the Best News. Jesus Christ has conquered sin, death and hell. Every time we tell it, we proclaim the victory won by Jesus. The victory that is ours by faith in what He has done. It’s Good News…
O Lord, you have searched me and known me! You know when I sit down and when I rise up; you discern my thoughts from afar. (Psalm 139:1-2, ESV)
My question to you today is: Is that psalm Good News or Bad News?
O Lord, you have searched me and known me! (Psalm 139:1, ESV)
Well, of course it’s not always good to have God know everything about everything about me. It almost feels like an invasion of privacy. Think about it, God searching me and knowing me! If God’s knows me, I can’t hide in the crowd. I can’t blend into the wallflowers. He knows who I am and there’s no getting away. That’s pretty bad news, isn’t it? Or is it good news? He knows me. He knows who I am, I’m not just a number in the crowd. He knows me for me. Come to think about it that means when Jesus hung on the cross, when He died for the sins of the world, because he was God, he knew me there too! When He rose from the dead as the first fruits of those who believe, he knew me then too! In fact, I know he knows me when he did those things because he connected me to all that Jesus did by putting his name on me in Holy Baptism. He knew me in Baptism and even called me by name. Because he searches me and knows me, he knows how much I need a Savior, and when he bled and died on the cross, he did it for me. And he rose again from death, and when I shout, “He is Risen!” I’m shouting it for me because God knows me, through Jesus Christ.  That’s very good news. 
You know when I sit down and when I rise up; you discern my thoughts from afar. (Psalm 139:2, ESV)
God knows when I sit and when I rise, that pretty much covers all my waking hours: At work, at play, at home, at church, as a matter of fact this sounds a lot like church, sitting and rising. Right here and now God knows my thoughts from afar. I don’t think that’s Good News at all. He looks inside here, inside my head, and knows what I’m thinking. Well, at times it’s rather empty, but at times it’s full of awful things. When I sit by people that I don’t like, God knows what I’m thinking… God knows what I’m thinking; he knows my thoughts from afar. He doesn’t have to be here and see the disgust on my face when I sit and wish that certain people would just go away. He knows how my thoughts wander from His Word.  He knows how I don’t want to listen when His law pricks my soul and tells me I’m a sinner.  I’d rather not have God know about that… But God knows my thoughts… He knows my struggle every day to do what’s right. I know I should be welcoming to everyone. I know that Jesus promise of forgiveness is for everyone. I know I should be attentive to the words spoken and sung here.  God knows that I know what I should do and yet I don’t do it. He knows my thoughts, how much help I need, so when He promises to help for me in these situations it’s not an empty offer. He is the one who can help me make a change in my attitude, and change my thoughts, because he knows exactly what they are. He promises that His Word and Sacraments will do the trick.  They’ll cause my faith to grow, and when my faith grows, so will my attitudes toward other people, even the people I don’t like… His Word will also have its effect on my heart that will to what He says to me. That is Good News, too.
You search out my path and my lying down and are acquainted with all my ways. (Psalm 139:3, ESV)
God watches over my going out and my lying down: in my house, outside of my house; in the garage, taking a nap on the couch, or late nights in front of the glow of the tube. God is familiar with all my ways. He’s familiar… does familiarity breeds contempt? My ways are not God’s ways. It’s not very Good News that God is familiar with what I do every day. Mostly because I’m not sure he’d be happy with some of the things I do. I don’t want my family to know all my ways. I have private moments that I want to be just mine, but God says he’s familiar… with my personal failures, my personal struggles with recurring sins, my personal demons, all the things that I hide from everyone. He knows them all… that’s Bad News, and yet, it’s Good News, isn’t it? If he’s familiar with it, he knows how much those things hurt me. If he’s familiar he knows how unhappy I am when I do them. The bible says that Jesus was tempted every way just as we are, that means he knows how difficult the struggle is. If he knows about them all, there’s no reason to not talk to him about them. No reason not to confess them to him. He’s familiar, he’s not going to be surprised at my confession, in fact when I say I have sinned in thought word and deed, he knows exactly what I’m talking about. In fact, He knows them better than I do. He even knows the sins and failures I don’t know about. He says, “If we confess our sins, God is faithful and just, will forgive our sins and cleanse us from all unrighteousness.” That’s His promise. He is faithful. He is familiar. He is forgiving. He forgives me.
Even before a word is on my tongue, behold, O Lord, you know it altogether. (Psalm 139:4, ESV)
There are times when I wish I knew what was on my tongue before I spoke. Often, my words cut into the hearts of those who hear them. More times than I care to admit my tongue is my most versatile weapon, and it works with more precision than any satellite-guided bomb. Worst of all my tongue is connected to my heart. When I say the things, I wish I didn’t say, I do mean them, even if I don’t mean them later. My tongue reveals the blackness that I know is in my heart. And God knows it’s there, too. He knows what I’m going to say before I say it. And what about those words that I don’t say? Those hurtful, spiteful words that I somehow manage to keep from rolling off my tongue. If he knows the ones I say before I say them then he knows the ones that I bite off in my mouth. Even though it was good not to say them, it’s bad that I even thought them. And God knows them all. He knows them but the bad news is that he doesn’t judge the words of my mouth. God judges by the heart, and mine is full of sin. He knows the words because he knows the heart. Out of the heart comes all sort of evil, Jesus says. But St. Paul says to let the words of Christ dwell richly in your heart. If his words are there, then His words will come off your tongue. Just look at today as an example: I sang “alleluia, alleluia, alleluia” in response to God’s great gift of salvation given in Jesus. I sing those words with the angels, and all the company of heaven.  And what’s more God knew I’d be singing these words before I even sang them.  So, prompted by the Good News of Jesus, the tongue that hurts are also the tongue that repeats God’s praises.  The tongue that cuts can also be the tongue that speaks of the forgiveness won for corrupt hearts. Jesus Christ knows. He knows what I’m going to say. He can and will cause his words to come out of me, instead of my own.
You hem me in, behind and before, and lay your hand upon me. Such knowledge is too wonderful for me; it is high; I cannot attain it. Where shall I go from your Spirit? Or where shall I flee from your presence? If I ascend to heaven, you are there! If I make my bed in Sheol, you are there! If I take the wings of the morning and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea, even there your hand shall lead me, and your right hand shall hold me. If I say, “Surely the darkness shall cover me, and the light about me be night,” even the darkness is not dark to you; the night is bright as the day, for darkness is as light with you. (Psalm 139:5-12, ESV)
The psalm speaks of God’s coming after me, it almost sounds like a pursuit.  There’s no place to hide from Him. Everywhere I go He is there. He’s like a bloodhound on the trail. I can’t climb a tree, or into a hole. He knows me. I can’t hide from Him. He knows my thoughts, the evil that fills my brain. He knows the things I do, weather in secret or in public. The things I do that are selfish, or hateful, or for spite. He knows my heart and the evil words I will speak. For all of that He should pursue me for punishment. The wages of sin is death, He says. I deserve death, for my thoughts, words and deeds. And I can hide none of them from God. The “Bad News” is that I am guilty, and God knows it.
But the Good News is: That instead of pursuing me, God pursues someone else.  You see, God can’t just let sin go unpunished.  He can’t just ignore it.  He can’t pretend it doesn’t exist.  He is holy and perfect and perfectly just.  He needs to find a way to satisfy His justice.  So, God finds a willing substitute to pursue and punish in my place.  It’s funny, in a way, because even though I am evil and deserve punishment, God punishes Him even though He is good. Jesus Christ fell under the relentless pursuit of God’s punishment. He suffered and died for my sins. AS Jesus bled and died on the cross, God heaped on him the punishment for my hidden thoughts, my evil actions, and my sinful heart. And in Jesus mind all the time was me.  He knows me and cares for me so much that he was willing to bear it all.  And when Jesus said, “It is finished!” the punishment for them all went away with His death. He rose again for me, to give life to me instead of the death I deserved. That is Great, Good News.
The funny thing is that if we think again of the psalm, we don’t have to worry about the Bad News anymore. In fact, instead of Good News / Bad News it’s just Good News / Good News. He searches me and knows me he knows all my needs and takes care of me. No intrusion on my privacy only the searching of a loving caring God. He only wants the best for me. He took care of my sin. He takes care of all my needs. Jesus knows my sitting and my rising and my thoughts from afar. He knows me so well that nothing can separate me from his love. I am always on his mind. And He knows and hears me even before I speak. Before I even know my needs myself, before I can even speak them God knows about them and has already answered taken care of them.
So, the Psalm that would be Bad News / Good News is really not Bad News at all. It’s Good News about my relationship with God, because of Jesus Christ. Amen.
The peace of God that passes all understanding, keep your hearts and minds in Christ Jesus. Amen.

Friday, July 19, 2019

July 19 - Cook County News Herald

So far this month in this Apologetics series we have looked at the evidence for the reliability of the Biblical texts. When we judge the historical documents (Biblical New Testament) by the standard set for all ancient documents, we find that they were early and thoughtfully copied.  In this article we will discuss the testimony the documents give. Again, we use tests from the secular world. In the legal world The McCoskey-Shoenberg standard is used to determine if witnesses are lying. There are four tests: What is the character of the witness? What are the external pressures to lie? Is the testimony consistent within itself? Is there external evidence to show the witness is lying?
First the character of the witnesses: The evidence lies squarely with the witnesses of Jesus life. In the texts themselves they say such things as “For we did not follow cleverly devised myths when we made known to you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but we were eyewitnesses of his majesty.” (2 Peter 1:16, ESV). There is no evidence that they were pathological liars, that they had criminal records, that they were untrustworthy. Here also we come down on the principal that the burden falls on whoever wishes to show that a witness is not telling the truth.
External pressures are the things that would prompt a normally truthful witness to lie. When we look at the culture of the day, we find that everything in the pagan and Jewish context would have pushed the witnesses in the opposite direction. By insisting that Jesus was a Divine Messiah they would have alienated both the Jews and the Romans. They would have lost their social status, their possessions, and ultimately their lives. Which is exactly what we see. It has been said that the disciples fabricated what they wrote because of Jesus powerful influence over them. We can put this to rest by simply showing Jesus himself spoke harshly about liars. He in fact, taught that lying was of the Devil (John 8:44).
Are the Gospels internally consistent? When we look at the historical documents, we find exactly what we expect to find in eyewitness testimony. We find four different accounts of Jesus life. They are not identical, an indicator of unreliability. Each writer tells the accounts from their own perspective. None of the Gospels claim a complete account of Jesus life. So called contradictions can often be harmonized with each other and often come from a misunderstanding of the nature of logical contradiction. Also, the witnesses often put themselves in a bad light. One only must look at the accounts of Peter to see this at work. These facts give these historical documents the ring of truth.
Is there external evidence to show the witnesses were lying? There are no accounts from the time that disagree with the Gospels. Of all people the Jews had the most reason for disagreement with what was written. Jesus life was lived in the open, in public. We find no accounts that disagree with what was said by people who had motive and opportunity to do so. The community leaders were in the ideal position to speak and write against the documents. Yet no accounts exist. Modern archaeology has also confirmed again and again the reliability of the New Testament geography, chronology, and general history. One example is all an article of this length will permit. Prior to 1961, many people claimed that Pontius Pilate was a creation of the Gospel writers. In that year, archeologists discovered a “Pilate Inscription”. This inscription speaks of a temple dedicated to Caesar, built by Pilate.
We find, once again, that testing the historical documents using secular tests comes out with a positive result. The Gospels convey an accurate account of Jesus life.
There are those who say, “If God would only reveal himself with a miracle, I’d believe in him.” To which I say, He has revealed himself in Jesus Christ. We have documented evidence of miracles including his resurrection from the dead. In fact, the case for the resurrection is so strong that those who refuse to face the evidence would find a way to discount even a modern miracle. As Jesus himself said, “If they do not hear Moses and the Prophets, neither will they be convinced if someone should rise from the dead.” (Luke 16:31, ESV). But more on the resurrection of Jesus next time.

Sunday, July 14, 2019

Psalm 41:1; Fifth Sunday after Pentecost; July 14, 2013;

Psalm 41:1; Fifth Sunday after Pentecost; July 14, 2013;
Life in Christ Lutheran Church, Grand Marais, MN;
Blessed is the one who considers the poor! In the day of trouble the Lord delivers him;” (Psalm 41:1, ESV)
From a Sermon by Rev. John Nunes.
Grace and Peace to you from Our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ. Amen.
Repeat after me: Praise the Lord! Hallelujah! Glory to the name of Jesus! The Lord our God is King!
For some of us that’s uncomfortable isn’t it. We’ll don’t feel bad it’s that way for most Christians in NA… even awkward and embarrassing. But for more than 200 million Christians throughout the world saying something like that would be downright dangerous. In the last 18 years, an estimated 50,000 to 70,000 Christians have been murdered by various groups, while another 2 million people have been displaced. These are places where it is legal to imprison, torture, enslave, rape, assault, and even murder by crucifixion those who profess words just like those. In some of those places this assembly that we so much take for granted could be a death sentence to all of us. This time of year, a few days after Independence Day is a good time to reflect on that fact, and ponder, and praise God for the blessings that we often overlook.
For some Christians, worship is a matter of life and death. But for all of us, being in Christ means even more. You see, all eternity hangs in the balance. It’s not just a mater of life and death; it’s a matter of everlasting life and everlasting death. In Word and Sacrament, God sets Jesus into our lives as the way, the truth and the life. He gives us so much more than worldly freedom. Through Word and water, bread and wine he enters our lives and we are changed, we are set free from sin and death. That’s a story that needs to be told!
It all really came about on a dark Friday outside of Jerusalem. It was there that Jesus won this life changing freedom for you and me, and all people who believe in him. When Jesus was crucified and died, he changed all of human history. But even more importantly than that he changed your history and mine. His death gives us freedom that is greater than any human won freedom. His death frees us from the very grip of death itself. The proclamation of what Jesus did is our “Emancipation Proclamation” from the bondage of sin and death. Martin Luther said it like this:
Human freedom might change laws without changing people, but Christian freedom changes people without changing the Law.
Jesus snatches us from the claws of the law. He gives us real freedom:
  • From living in a dead-end valley of the shadow of death to living an abundant life.
  • From slavery to sin; to having all the rights and privileges of the Children of God.
  • From having broken spirits to leaping with joy in the Holy Spirit.
  • From thirsting for righteousness to drinking from the cup of salvation that runs over.
Philis Weatly was an African born American slave in the 1700’s. She was set free through faith in Jesus Christ at a very early age. But she is better known for being a poet. She was the first African American poet, and the first Woman poet to be published on this continent. It was her poetry that eventually led to her freedom. Still, she died young and penniless. She wrote this:
In every human breast,
God has implanted a
Principle with we call
Love of
Freedom; it is impatient of
Oppression, and pants for
The problem with our panting for freedom is that we go after the wrong kind of freedom. The sin that permeates us leads us to seek freedom not where it can ultimately be found. No earthly utopia will ever supply true freedom, only frustration and futility. No earthly government can promise real freedom to its citizens, only partial freedom that is fleeting.
If you doubt me just look at how throughout history the most purely motivated activists ended up surpassing the oppression of those they replaced. Look how therapeutic techniques that are supposed to make relationships right often fail to distinguish right from wrong and indulge the sinful nature instead of helping. Why do liberation movements often end up oppressing those they intended to help?
That’s what the Psalmist was complaining about when he wrote these words:
Blessed is the one who considers the poor! In the day of trouble the Lord delivers him;” (Psalm 41:1, ESV)
He was oppressed by marauders who streamed across the land limiting everyone’s ability to live peacefully. He was moved by the Holy Spirit to pen those words, a liturgical prayer of liberation, true liberation. He was speaking about looking for freedom that is found only in the Holy God. The freedom that he gives is freedom worth panting over and seeking out.
We worship God here today. That’s why we gather together and are blessed to be able to do so freely. In deer like fashion we come here to drink in the saving words of God. We stand and sit side by side in unity and love. It all flows from our connection with each other in Jesus Christ. There are many ways we serve one another and even others who do not know about the freedom we find here. Just because we are unified in faith doesn’t mean there’s only one way to serve. Some do so quietly through faithful prayer, some serve outwardly by washing motorcycles, (serving in a carnival) and still others by visiting friends in the hospital. Just because we are one in the Holy Spirit doesn’t mean that there is only one way to serve. God has given us all many and varied gifts; he gives us the freedom to use those gifts. St. Paul talked about all of us being “one body” arms, ears, eyes, etc. Each serve in a different way but none less valuable than any other.
Also being a member of this body doesn’t mean there is only one way to vote. If anyone tells you that Christians have to agree on social issues like taxes or which candidates to vote for they’re wrong. There is room for constructive debate among us when it comes to the ways we do certain things. A good source of information on this topic is found in the CTCR document Render Unto Ceaser… and Unto God. It’s available in the church library or you can check it out of my office. It read, “also in the church, and not only in the public square, civil but principled debate on social ethics must be encouraged.” (p. 63). There is a time and place for creativity… a time to challenge long established assumptions… a time to question the way we’ve always done things… and propose changes. There is room for diversity of opinion among the people of God when it comes to structure and church government and how we bring the Gospel to the community around us. Of course, there isn’t any room for change in the content of that Gospel. Jesus Christ is the only way of salvation; He has purchased and won us from sin and death by his life, death and resurrection. We are brought to faith and strengthened in faith by the work of God in Word and Sacrament. How we tell those truths is a matter of freedom.
The freedom we are looking for, well the freedom that everyone is looking for is found only in Jesus Christ. He is with us here and we are free! We gather here to eat and drink his very body and blood that is our freedom. We deeply drink in the Word of God spoken to us, which brings us the deliverance that comes from knowing the Good News of Jesus Christ. We are totally delivered from the slavery of sin. We are delivered and free, now! Not sometime in our future after our death, but right now. We struggle with sin every day, but Jesus death has freed us from it. It doesn’t control us because we have forgiveness through Jesus Christ. Whenever sin tries to bind us again, we know that Jesus was bound to death instead of us. We can set sin aside and move on to a better future, a future of freedom in Jesus Christ.
Think of what it means for your life now that you are free from the slavery of sin. You don’t have to worry about punishment for your failures. When you fail you can move on, you can forgive and forget when someone hurts you. All of that pain and suffering was placed on Jesus; you can give it to him and live free from it. You don’t have to worry about your eternal destiny. That’s sealed also by the death of Jesus. What happens to you after death is assured in Christ. Doesn’t that make your life different than it would be otherwise? You are free to do all kinds of things in service to other people. All different kinds of things to help them to see Jesus and his work for them. All different kinds of things to serve your friends and neighbors too. All the while pointing toward the one who has set you free to do those things.
That’s what life is about. Being free in Jesus lets you see and know it. We have a small taste of that because of the freedoms we enjoy here in the US. We can be very thankful for that. But most of all we can be thankful that Jesus Christ has really set us free. Amen.
The peace of God, that passes all understanding, keep your hearts and minds in Christ Jesus. Amen.

Thursday, July 11, 2019

July 11 - Cook County News Herald

Last week we looked at the bibliographical test for ancient documents relating to the Gospels Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. We found that no documents of ancient history have better evidential accuracy (that is, we have the documents as they were written) than the New Testament texts. This week were going to look at the internal and external tests for ancient documents. The internal test for documentary real liability asks this question: What do the texts claim for themselves?
The four Gospels, Matthew Mark, Luke and John claim to have been written by witnesses or eyewitnesses of the events described. Or written by close associates of eyewitnesses based on careful research. For example from Luke’s gospel the writer tells of his careful research: “Inasmuch as many have undertaken to compile a narrative of the things that have been accomplished among us, just as those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word have delivered them to us, it seemed good to me also, having followed all things closely for some time past, to write an orderly account for you, most excellent Theophilus, that you may have certainty concerning the things you have been taught.” (Luke 1:1–4, ESV)
Matthew and John were disciples of Jesus and eyewitnesses of the events they describe. Luke the physician accompanied Paul on his journeys. Mark was an associate of the disciple Peter. The connection to be original apostles is very strong. In the face of these claims, and no external argument against them. We must follow Aristotle’s dictum that the benefit of the doubts is to be given to the document itself, not arrogated by the critic to himself.
The external test for documentary authenticity looks for sources outside of the texts in question to confirm what those text say about themselves. Since it is possible for a document to make claims that are not true; external confirmation is therefore an important way to eliminate the possibility. Fortunately, the New Testament as many such external confirmations available.
Papias of Hiropolis (ca 130 A.D.), based on information obtained by John the elder (John the apostle) tells us that Mark very carefully recorded what the apostle Peter told him. Irenacus, a student of Polycarp of Smyrna, was himself a disciple of John writes, “Matthew published his gospel among the Hebrews in their own language, when Peter and Paul were preaching the gospel in Rome and founding the church there. After their departure (that is their death which occurred time of the early and persecution and 64-65), Mark, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, himself handed down to us in writing the substance of Peter’s preaching. Luke, the follower of Paul, set down in a book the gospel preached by his teacher. Then John the disciple of the Lord, who also leaned on his breast, himself produced his gospel, while he was living it Ephesus in Asia.” (Add. Haer. 3.1)
An article of this size does not allow the inclusion of the many external documents that’s important the authors of the New Testament. You are encouraged to research for yourself these claims on the Internet.
These conclusions about the authorship of the New Testament documents allow us to date the writing of these documents before 70 A.D. The temple in Jerusalem was destroyed by the Romans in that year. The documents do not speak of this very important event. There is also of fragmented John’s gospel that must be dated at the end of the first century (100 A.D.). The biblical scholar Harnack uses the following reasoning to date the Gospels. Paul died in 64-65 A.D. the book of Acts does not mention his death and would have done so if he had already died. The gospel of Luke, which is part one of the book of Acts and referred to in the preface of Acts as having been written earlier, must’ve occurred after the writing of the gospel Mark. This gospel was used as a source for Luke’s and Matthew’s gospel. All of which occurred later than Jesus ministry which ended around 30 A.D. From this reasoning we determine that Matthew, Mark, and Luke were written within a 35 year period following Jesus’ crucifixion.
His argument can be summed up with the following diagram: (> signifies “must have occurred before”)
       The Book of Acts > Gospel of Luke > Gospel of Mark all after Jesus Ministry – 30 A.D.
To be sure, this evidence merely allows for us to date the documents and determine their authorship. How much weight should be given to them, that is, how accurate are they and what they say will be taken up in my next article.
Please feel free to contact me with comments or questions.